澳门威尼斯人捕鱼达人优惠活动

澳门威尼斯人捕鱼达人无上限返水:第四届UIBE国际政治经济高端论坛成功举办

时间:2018-11-08

2009年美国的人权记实

国务院静态办公室

2010年312

2010311,美国国务院揭晓《2009年国别人权讲演》,再次以全国人权法官自居,对包孕中国在内的全国190多个国度和地域的人权情形举行责备,而对本身非常糟的人权记实熟视无睹、躲避粉饰。为了让全国群众理解实在的美国人权情形,我们揭晓《2009年美国的人权记实》。

一、关于性命、财富和人身保险

美国社会暴力犯法重大,国民的性命、财富和人身保险缺少应有的保障。

美国司法部20099月的讲演显现,美国12岁以上国民2008年共阅历490万起暴力犯法,1630万起财富犯法,13.7万起团体偷盗犯法,此中暴力犯法的产生率为每千人19.3起。(注1)除交通肇事外,2008年,美国共拘捕了1400多万名犯法份子,此中每10万人有198.2人因暴力犯法被捕。(注22009年,费城共产生了35起家庭凶杀案,比2008年同比增进67%。(注3)纽约市有记载的谋杀案为461起,均匀10万人中的犯法案为1151起。得克萨斯州的圣安东尼奥市均匀10万人中的犯法案为2538起,被以为是美国25座大都会中最危险的都会。(注42008年,人丁低于10000人的城镇谋杀案回升了5.5%。(注5)美国每一年产生在都会的谋杀案达15000起,次要集中在比拟贫穷的社区。(注6

美国私家领有枪枝数目居全国第一。美国联邦考察局及酒、烟和火器局统计显现,美国3.09亿人丁领有近2.5亿支枪,大部分领有枪枝的人都有1支以上的枪。美国人每一年购置70亿发枪弹,2008年回升到90亿发。(注7)美国法令允许飞机乘客经过申报后携带未装弹药的兵器。

在美国,每一年约有3万人死于各种枪击事情。(注8)美国联邦考察局的讲演显现,2008年,美国共有14180人死于枪杀案。(注9)罪犯在谋杀案、抢劫案和恶性攻打案中运用枪枝等兵器的别离占66.9%43.5%21.4%。(注10)《昔日美国报》报导,2009311日,麦克林顿在亚拉巴马州的两个镇杀戮包孕眷属在内的10人后他杀。(注11329日,罗伯特·斯图尔特在北卡罗来纳州穆尔县一所高级疗养院枪杀8人、打伤3人。43日,在纽约州宾厄姆顿市一家移民办事核心,42岁的王林发向在上英语课的师生开枪射击,构成13人殒命,4人受伤。(注122009年,不竭产生的袭警事情使人震惊。321日,加利福尼亚州奥克兰市一名26岁赋闲良人担忧入狱,枪杀4名警员后被警方击毙。(注1344日,波普瓦夫斯基在宾夕法尼亚州匹兹堡市开枪杀戮3名差人。1129日,减刑获释的莫里斯·克莱蒙斯在华盛顿州帕克兰一家咖啡馆枪击4名差人。(注14

枪击案伸张到黉舍且不竭进级,校园成为暴力犯法的重灾区。美国传统基金会的讲演表白,20072008学年,华盛顿特区11.3%的高中生曾在校园中阅历过枪枝等兵器的要挟;华盛顿特区公校因遭逢暴力犯法事情拨打急救德律风900屡次(注15);新泽西州公校产生17666起暴力事情。(注16)纽约市立澳门威尼斯人捕鱼达人无上限返水5所学院20062007年间产生恶性犯法案件达107起。(注17)  

二、关于国民权益和政治权益

美国当局限度、加害国民权益和政治权益的情形相当重大。

美国差人施暴重大。据《芝加哥保卫者报》200978日报导,纽约市有315名差人因在执法进程中滥施暴力而受外部 暮气监禁企图的监督。2007年,受监督的差人惟独210人。从前两年来,纽约差人局因招致过多大众不满而接收外部 暮气审查的差人人数回升了50%。纽约差人局20091117日的讲演显现,纽约市差人2007年发射588发枪弹,构成10人殒命;2008年发射354发枪弹,构成13人殒命。(注18200993日,4名差人用警棍、泰瑟枪殴打圣何塞州立澳门威尼斯人捕鱼达人无上限返水先生胡方10次以上。(注19922日,一名中国留先生在俄勒冈州尤金市遭一名警员无端殴打。(注20)据大赦国际统计,2009110月,美国警方适度运用泰瑟枪招致45人殒命,殒命者中最小年齿15岁。从2001年到200910月,有389人因警方运用泰瑟枪致死。(注21

美国执法职员滥用职权。20097月,联邦考察局考察了都城华盛顿地域4名延续几年从本地毒贩开设的赌场收取庇护费的差人。(注229月,芝加哥一名休班差人以巴士司机故障其自行车道为由对其举行殴打。(注23)同月,芝加哥差人局出格举动组4名前差人被告状以实行公务为名,用多种体式格局巧取豪夺犯法嫌疑人近50万美圆,并屡次受贿下级主管。(注2411月,乔治王子县一差人局前局长因擅自销售缉获的偷盗枪枝而被控有罪。(注25)在美国大都会,每一年有100多万行人在街上被差人叫住盘考、询问、搜身和搜包,这个数字比几年前增进了良多。(注26

美国牢狱人满为患。据美国司法部2009128日讲演,到2008年末,美国共有730万人被关押在牢狱、看守所或处于缓刑或假释中,比2007年下跌了0.5%。(注27)此中,230万人在牢狱服刑,即每198位美国人中就有1人在服刑。从20002008年,美国牢狱人数均匀每一年下跌1.8%。(注28)由于加州牢狱人满为患的压力和愈来愈差的财务情形,加利福尼亚州当局拟将上万名非法移民送往墨西哥的牢狱。(注29

犯人基本权益得不到保障。狱警强暴犯人的征象遍及具有。美国司法部指出,在93家联邦牢狱中,牢狱事情职员对罪犯举行性加害的事情在从前8年中添加了一倍。在被告状对犯人举行性虐待的90名牢狱事情职员中,有40%的人还被判犯有其余罪状。(注30)据《纽约时报》2009624日报导,经由进程对63000多名州和联邦牢狱犯人的考察显现,4.5%的犯人在从前12个月内至多蒙受一次性虐待,估计美国至多产生6万起针对犯人的强暴案。(注31

牢狱办理凌乱,疾病伸张。美国司法部的讲演显现,2008年末,美国联邦和各州立牢狱中共有20231名男性犯人和1913名女性犯人为艾滋病毒携带者,别离占男女犯人的1.5%1.9%。(注3220072008年,加利福尼亚州牢狱犯人的艾滋病毒携带者添加了246人,密苏里州添加了169人,佛罗里达州添加了166人。2007年,联邦和各州立牢狱共有130多名犯人因艾滋病殒命。(注33)人权视察20093月的一份讲演指出,纽约州牢狱艾滋病毒携带者的人数大大多于其余大部分州,这些人没法失掉照应医治,以至被别离关押,谢绝供应任何医治。(注34

美国一方面在全国上竭力抛售言论自在静态自在互联网自在,另一方面却齐全依照美国本身的好处和需要,不择手腕地监控、限度国民的自在权益。

美国国民接收、传布信息的自在受到严正监控。据报导,美国国度保险局早在2001年就在海内装置专门的窃听设施,监听德律风、传真和电子邮件,搜集海内的通信信息。这一名目起初只是针对阿拉伯裔美国人,开初逐渐扩展到其余一般国民。在美国的密苏里州的圣何塞、圣地亚哥、西雅图、洛杉矶、芝加哥等地装置的监听设施超过25台。近日,美国国度保险局正耗资15亿美圆在犹他州威廉姆斯修建立一个百万平方英尺的数据库,在圣安东尼奥建设另一个海量数据库,作为其新成立的网络司令部的重要组成部分。一名名叫诺基奥的人因谢绝加入该企图而被告状犯有19项内情买卖罪并被判处6年徒刑。(注35

“9· 11” 事情后,美国当局打着反恐的旗帜,受权谍报零碎侵入国民的邮件通信,并经由进程技巧手腕片面监控和强迫删除网络中要挟美国国度好处的信息。依照美国《爱国者法案》,差人机关有权搜寻德律风、电子邮件通信、医疗、财务和其余种类的记载;增强了差人和移民办理单位扣押、摈除被怀疑与恐怖主义无关的外籍人士的势力。该法案延误了恐怖主义的界说,扩展了差人机关可统领的规模。 200879,美国参议院经由进程的新版窃听法案,给以介入窃听名目的电信公司法令豁免权,同时允许美国当局以反恐为由在未经法庭同意的情形下,能够 呐喊对通信一方在美国境外的国际间通信举行窃听。(注36)据统计,美国联邦考察局在20022006年间,经由进程邮件、便条和德律风等渠道,窃取数千份美国国民的通信记载。20099月,美国设立了卖力互联网保险的监禁部门,更加重了美国国民对当局会以维护互联网保险为由对私家零碎举行干预和监禁的忧虑。美国一名当局官员在20094月接收《纽约时报》采访时否认,美国国度保险局近月来拦阻和监听美国国民电子邮件和德律风的行为已超越美国国会2008年设下的限度规模。除此之外,他们还奥秘监听别国政治人物、国际结构官员、知名记者等的德律风。(注37)美国军方也介入实行监控。据美国有线静态网报导,总部设在弗吉尼亚州的美国军方网络危险评价机关,卖力监控民间和非民间的团体博客、民间文件、私家联络信息、兵器照片、兵营入口以及其余可能要挟国度保险的网站。

美国所谓的静态自在,现实上齐全遵从于美国好处,是美国当局操控下的自在。据报导,美国当局和五角大楼曾故意布置一批入伍军官,在美国各大广播电视媒体担负评论员,以军事专家的身份,对伊拉克和平和阿富汗和平给出踊跃评价和分析,试图引导言论,美化和平,让公共认同其反恐理念,从而猎取支撑。(注382009年末,美国国会经由进程一项法案,以传布反美内容、怂恿暴力为由,对中东地域数家阿拉伯卫星电视频道举行制裁。(注3920099月,在美国匹兹堡召开20国团体辅导人会议时,反资本主义抗议者运用推特和手机短信结构群众集会,与警方产生几回抵触。41岁的艾略特·麦迪逊随后被控经由进程网络帮忙抗议者逃避拘捕,警方还查抄了他的居处。(注40)宾夕法尼亚州美国国民自在同盟卖力人维克·瓦尔扎克称,若是一样的事情产生在此外国度,就会被称为加害人权,但在美国,却被称为须要的防止犯法措施。

三、关于经济、社会和文明权益

美国的贫穷、赋闲、无家可归者等问题重大,休息者的经济、社会、文明权益得不到保障。

美国赋闲率创26年新高。受金融危机的影响,美国破产企业和团体数目不竭回升。美联社20094月报导,从前12个月内美国请求破产庇护的企业和团体总数近120万。从前一年中,每1000个美国人中就有4人请求破产,破产率是2006年的两倍。(注41)到2009124日,受金融危机影响,美国共有130家银行自愿关闭。(注42)据美国劳工部116日发布的数据,美国200910月赋闲率达10.2%,1600万人找不到事情,创1983年以来最高记载。(注43)赋闲超过半年的有560万人,占赋闲人数的35.6%。(注449月,年老人的赋闲率高达25%,赋闲人数约为160万,是1948年有记载以来的最高水平。(注45200937日停止的一周里,美国有547万人继承领取赋闲补助,高于前一周的529万人。(注46

贫穷人丁创11年新高。《华盛顿邮报》2009910日报导,2008年末,美国贫穷人丁达3980万人,比2007年添加260万人,占美国人丁的13.2%,贫穷率是1998年以来最高的一年。1864岁贫穷人丁回升到2210万,比2007年添加17万人。堕入贫穷的家庭占10.3%,达810万个。(注47)《纽约时报》2009929日报导,2008年,纽约市贫穷率为18.2%,近28%的布郎克斯区住民糊口在贫穷中。(注4820088月至20098月,超过9万户加州贫穷家庭被断电气绝。密歇根州一名93岁的老翁也因断电气绝冻死在家中。(注49)贫穷招致美国他杀人数激增。据报导,美国每一年约产生3.2万起他杀事情,几乎是1.8万起谋杀案的两倍。(注50)洛杉矶验尸官办公室的官员称,由于经济危机招致许多家庭没法累赘丧葬用度。2008年,洛杉矶县有712具尸身无人认领,比上年添加36%。(注51

受饿人丁居14年来最高。美国农业部20091116日讲演称,2008年,美国有14.6%1700万个家庭的4910万人在受饿,比2007年的11.1%1300万个家庭添加了31%,创1995年起头此项统计以来的最高记实。(注52)对食品不保险感的人从2007年的470万回升到2008年的670万。(注53)约15%的家庭还在为饥寒而斗争。(注54)据统计,20098月,美国有3650万人领取食品券,占总人丁1/8,比2008年添加了710万。但惟独2/3合乎请求资历的人取得了食品券。(注55

休息者权益受到重大损害。《纽约时报》200992日报导,依照纽约、洛杉矶和芝加哥学者一项针对4387名低支出工人的考察发觉,68%被考察的低支出者被克扣工资。在自愿加班的工人中有76%的人未失掉照应的加班报答,57%被考察者的工资支出不依法足付证明。独一8%因公挂花的人要求补偿。26%的被考察者的工资支出低于全国最低工资尺度。在抱怨工资支出及待遇问题的工人当中,43%的工人有被打击报复或被解雇的阅历。(注56)《昔日美国报》2009720日报导,2007年,美国在事情场合殒命的人数为5657人,天天约有17人在事情中殒命,纽约州每一年约有20万人在事情场合受伤或抱病。(注57

不医疗保险的人数延续8年添加。依照美国人丁普查局2009910日发布的数据,2008年,美国有4630万人没法取得医疗保险,占总人丁比例的15.4%,比2007年的4570万人添加约60万人,是延续第8年添加。此中,1864岁无医疗保险的人数从2007年的19.6%添加到2008年的20.3%。(注58)联邦基金的考察显现,20072009年,美国31个州1864岁的成年人医疗保险规模减少。(注59)成年人无医疗保险人丁比率极高的州由1999年的2个添加到2009年的9个。得克萨斯州均匀每4人中就有1人无医疗保险,居美国之首。(注60)休斯顿40.1%的住民无医疗保险。(注61)据统计,2008年,有226665岁如下的入伍军人因缺少医疗保险或医疗办事而殒命,全国因无医疗保险殒命的入伍军人比在阿富汗沙场上阵亡人数高出14倍。(注62)消费者同盟的一项考察显现,从前一年,34%的年支出5万美圆如下家庭和21%的年支出10万美圆以上家庭医疗保险丢失或受到增添;2/3年支出5万美圆如下的家庭和1/3年支出10万美圆以上的家庭增添了医疗支出。28%的人生病不去就诊;25%的人没法领取医疗或药品的用度;22%的人拖延实行医疗法式;20%的人有处方不买药或不做医疗检讨;15%的人服用过时药物或为了省钱而不遵医嘱定时服药。(注63)经济合作与发展结构2009128日发布讲演称,2007年美国人均寿命仅为78.1岁,在经合结构成员国中居倒数第四位,而该年经合结构成员国的人均寿命为79.1岁。(注64

无家可归者激增。据统计,遏制20089月,美国有160万人住进栖流所,举家都在栖流所的人数从2007年的47.3万添加到2008年的51.7万。(注652009年以来,芝加哥地域六个县的无家可归者有所添加,此中麦克亨利县添加至多,比客岁增进了125%,这些家庭只能住在棚车等简略单纯场合。(注6620093月,加州州府萨克拉门托市构成了一个帐篷城,数百名无家可归者会萃在此。南加州的圣莫尼卡市不惜动用武力按期将无家可归者摈除到市外。(注6710月,底特律市的几千名无家可归者因担忧领不到当局的住房补贴而大打出手。(注6812月,纽约市栖流十足6975名无家可归的单身成人,这个数字不包孕短时间居处里的30698人、戎行老兵和历久无家可归者。(注69)《休斯顿纪事报》2009316日报导,20089月,加尔维斯顿大批屋宇在艾克飓风中损毁,有数千哀鸿没法重返家园,约1700户家庭未失掉救助,大都居无定所。(注70) 

四、关于种族蔑视

种族蔑视至今仍是美国社会的一大痼疾。

黑人和其余多数族裔是最贫穷的美国人。据美国人丁普查局发布的讲演,2008年美国中等支出水平的家庭均匀年支出50303美圆,此中白报答55530美圆,而拉美裔则为37913美圆,相当于白人的68%;黑人仅为34218美圆,相当于白人的61.6%。在同等学历和技能下,多数族裔的均匀支出仅为多数族裔支出的60-80%。(注71)据美国人丁普查局发布的讲演,2008年美国白人的贫穷率为8.6%,而黑人、拉美裔人的贫穷率别离为24.7%23.2%,濒临白人的3倍(注72),还有1/4的印第安人糊口在贫穷之中。2008年不医疗保险的拉美裔人达30.7%,黑报答19.1%,而白报答14.5%。(注73)依照美国住房和都会发展部的讲演,遏制20089月的财务年度内,在该部收到的10552起触及住房赞扬案中,种族蔑视占35%。(注74)美国联邦疾病把持和防止核心的讲演显现,非洲裔美国人只占美国人丁的12%,却每一年占美国新增艾滋病病毒感染者和因艾滋病殒命者的近一半。(注75

对多数民族的赋闲和职业蔑视重大。在美国的赋闲大军中,多数族裔赋闲者一马当先2。据报导,200910月,美国均匀赋闲率为10.2%,此中,黑人赋闲率回升到15.7%,西班牙裔人赋闲率回升到13.1%,而白人赋闲率为9.5%。(注761624岁的黑人赋闲率达34.5%,超过美国均匀赋闲率的3倍,创汗青最高。有些都会的黑人赋闲率到达20%(注77),有的印第安人部落赋闲率高达80%。(注78)据美国劳工统计局的统计,2009年,25岁以上的黑人男性澳门威尼斯人捕鱼达人无上限返水毕业生的赋闲率是8.4%,濒临白人男性澳门威尼斯人捕鱼达人无上限返水毕业生赋闲率4.4%2倍。(注79)据统计,2008年美国95000件职业蔑视案中,近1/3为种族蔑视案。(注80)据美国对等赋闲委员会称,已延续接到5起关于休斯顿一家石油天然气公司具有种族蔑视行为的赞扬。(注81)据报导,遏制20095月尾,黑人和西班牙裔人丁各占纽约市人丁的27%,然而由于纽约市消防部门不公正地扫除有色人种担负消防队员,黑人消防队员仅占3%,西班牙裔消防队员占6%。(注82

多数民族在受教育方面受到蔑视。据美国人丁普查局的讲演,33%的白人领有澳门威尼斯人捕鱼达人无上限返水学历,但黑人惟独20%,拉美裔人惟独13%。(注83)据报导,20032008年间,在向法学院递交请求的先生中,61%的非洲裔和46%的墨西哥裔先生受到谢绝,而惟独34%的白人先生受到谢绝。(注84)非洲裔儿童仅占美国公立黉舍在校生的17%,然而被开革的数目却占被开革总数的32%。据北卡罗来纳澳门威尼斯人捕鱼达人无上限返水和密歇根州立澳门威尼斯人捕鱼达人无上限返水关于美国黑人少年对种族蔑视意见的研讨讲演,大部分黑人少年以为本身是种族蔑视的受害者。(注85)另据一项对休斯顿、洛杉矶和伯明翰5000名儿童的考察显现,20%的黑人儿童以为本身遭逢蔑视,拉美裔儿童为15%。研讨显现,种族蔑视是招致多数族裔儿童精神疾病的重要缘由。拉美裔儿童有抑郁病症的数目是其余族裔儿童的3倍,黑人儿童是其余族裔儿童的2倍。(注86

执法和司法畛域的种族蔑视非常较着。据美国司法部统计,遏制2008年末,美国每10万黑人中有3161名良人和149名主妇被关押在牢狱里。(注87)有25个州非洲裔青年被判处无假释终身监禁的比例是白人青年的10倍,在加利福尼亚州达18倍。在美国各大都会,每一年有超过100万行人在大街上被差人叫住盘考,近九成是多数族裔良人,此中五成为非洲裔人,三成为拉丁裔人,而被检讨的白人惟独一成。(注88)纽约市差人局发布的讲演显现,2008年纽约市差人针对黑人和拉美裔人开枪的比例别离为75%22%,而针对白人开枪的比例则为3%。(注89)据人权视察发布的讲演,19802007年,美国全国规模内黑人因毒品犯法而被拘捕的比例是白人的2.85.5倍。(注90

“9· 11” 事情以来,对穆斯林的蔑视加重。一家研讨核心发布的一项结合考察显现,58%的美国人以为穆斯林蒙受到很大的蔑视。1829岁的年老人中有73%的人以为穆斯林是最受蔑视的集体。(注91

移民际遇凄惨。据大赦国际美国分会揭晓的讲演,美国每一年扣押30多万非法移民,均匀天天在逃的移民超过3万人。(注92)同时,每一年有数以百计的正当移民被拘禁、谢绝出境以至押送出境。(注93)据宪法名目研讨小组和人权视察结合发布的一份讲演,从19992008年,有140万名被扣押的移民被转移,原在洛杉矶和费城糊口多年的上万名移民被强行移送到悠远的得克萨斯州或路易斯安那州移民牢狱。(注94)纽约市状师协会200810月接到关押在曼哈顿瓦里克扣押所100名男性移民的求援信,描绘了扣押所的拥堵、龌龊、缺医少药、受饿、天天唱工惟独1美圆报答的际遇。(注95)一些哺乳期的母亲被关押后由于被谢绝供应吸奶器,招致感冒、乳腺炎和丢失哺乳能力。(注96200310月以来在移民与海关执法局关押中殒命的移民达104人。(注97

种族冤仇犯法频发。美国联邦考察局20091123日发布的冤仇犯法统计显现,2008年,美国共产生冤仇犯法7783起,此中51.3%是基于种族蔑视,19.5%基于宗教偏见,11.5%基于国别蔑视。(注98)在种族仇视案件中,70%以上是针对黑人的。2008年,针对黑人的暴力犯法达每千人26人,针对白人的数字是每千人18人。(注992009610日,白人至上主义者和新纳粹份子布伦在华盛顿纳粹大屠杀遇难者纪念馆枪杀黑人保安约翰斯,打伤2人。(注100)据美国北方贫穷问题法令核心发布的讲演,纽约州萨福克县种族不容忍和民族冤仇的气氛构成从前10年间产生良多起白人攻打拉美裔移民事情。(注101

五、关于主妇、儿童权益

美国主妇儿童生存情形日薄西山,主妇儿童的权益得不到应有的保障。

主妇不享有与良人对等的社会政治位置。美国女性人丁占总人丁的51%,然而在目前第111届美国国会中,男议员有441名,女议员惟独92名,占17%,此中参议员17名,众议员75名。(注102)一项研讨表白,多数族群和主妇很少能在美国的大型慈善机关和非盈利机关中身居要职,主妇仅占非盈利机关首席实行官总人数的18.8%,在全国500强企业中只占3%。在美国400个最大的慈善机关中,十足文明结构、医院、公共事务团体、犹太人同盟或其余宗教结构中不一个是由主妇辅导的。(注103

主妇赋闲难、支出低、糊口贫穷。据美国对等赋闲委员会统计,2008年该委员会共收到赋闲方面的告状95402件,比上年提高了15%,此中基于性别方面赋闲蔑视的告状继承占很高比例。(注104)美国人丁普查局20099月发布,美国全职主妇2008年的年均支出为35745美圆,全职良人的年均支出为46367美圆,女性支出为男性的77%,低于2007年的78%。(注105)据美联社报导,一名已在沃尔玛事情10年的女配药师由于要求取得与男共事相反的薪酬于2004年被解雇。(注106)到2008年末,有420万个单亲女性家庭糊口贫穷,比率达28.7%。(注107)美国有6400万事情年齿的主妇不医疗保险或医疗保险额太少、领取账单有难题或欠交医疗费以至废弃医治,占事情年齿主妇总数的70%。(注108

主妇频遭暴力和性损害。据报导,美国强奸产生率比英国高13倍,比日本高20倍,居全国最高。(注10920093月,圣迭戈地域延续产生5起尾随主妇入室抢劫并且对受害人施以性损害的案件。(注110)据美国国防部发布的一份研讨讲演,遏制2008年财务年度,美军方共接到2900多起戎行外部 暮气强奸和其余性加害案件,比上一年添加9%,而这些案件中惟独292起案件被提交到军事法庭。报导称,此类案件的现实数字可能是告发数字的510倍。(注111)据路透社报导,依照对40个服役美国女兵的深度采访,此中10人被强奸,5人被性加害,还有13人被猥亵。(注112

美国儿童饥寒交迫。据美国农业部发布的讲演,2008年,占美国儿童总数1/41670万儿童得不到足够食品。(注113)美国食品救援机关喂养美国发布的一份讲演称,美国有350万名5岁如下儿童时常受饿或营养不良,占儿童总数的17%以上,此中有11个州受饿儿童比例超过20%,路易斯安那州到达24.2%。(注114)美国贫穷人丁中18岁如下的儿童占1/3以上。据美国人丁普查局发布的数据,到2008年末,美国15.7%18岁如下儿童糊口在贫穷中,人数从2007年的1330万回升到1410万。(注115)据报导,20052006年间,美国每一年有150多万儿童无家可归,每50名儿童中就有一人无家可归。在无家可归的儿童中,42%不到6岁,大多数是非洲裔和印第安人。(注1162008年美国有近1/10的儿童得不到医疗安康保险。据报导,2008年,美国有730万儿童不医疗保险;占美国儿童的9.9%,内华达州有20.2%的儿童不保险。(注1172009813日,加州危险办理医疗保险委员会投票经由进程决策,从200910月起终止6万多名贫穷家庭儿童的安康家庭医疗保险;到20106月尾前,将撤消67万名贫穷家庭儿童的安康家庭医疗保险。(注118)霍普金斯医学院儿童核心的一项研讨表白,从前20年来,由于缺少医疗保险,招致约1.7万名美国儿童殒命。(注119)美国疾病把持与防止核心说,自20094月甲型H1N1流感暴发至10月间,美国约800万名18岁如下的儿童染病,此中540人殒命。(注120

儿童糊口在暴力和恐惧中。据报导,2008年,美国共有149418岁如下的儿童被杀。(注121)纽约市卫生局2009616日发布的一份讲演显现,20012007年间,美国112岁儿童殒命率为10万分之20,此中谋杀殒命率为10万分之1.3。(注122)美国司法部200815月的一项对454917岁如下儿童的考察表白,60%以上的美国儿童在从前一年中间接或间接蒙受暴力加害,近一半被考察儿童至多受过一次攻打,约6%的儿童受到性加害,13%的儿童挨过打。(注1232002年以来,得克萨斯州至多有1227名儿童因受虐待或照顾不周而殒命。(注124)据美国研讨机关和公共卫生媒体的研讨讲演显现,美国每一年有1/3离家出走或被赶出家门的孩子靠出卖肉体换取食品、药品和寓所。司法零碎再也不把她们看成年幼的受害者,而是把她们看成青少年罪犯。(注125

农业大批运用童工。据一个儿童权益庇护结构披露,美国约有40万儿童处置正当的农业事情。据美国农场工人赋闲培训企图主席戴维斯·斯特劳斯称,数十年以来一向有年齿低于8岁的儿童处置此类事情,并且他们在事情进程中运用的是锐利的休息工具和危险性极高的农药。该机关辅导委员会主席厄尼·弗洛里斯默示,美国因处置农业事情而殒命的人丁中有20%是儿童。(注126)美国的一项休息尺度法允许13岁以上儿童在炎炎骄阳下长光阴举行农业休息,却不允许他们坐在配有空调的办公室里事情,以至禁绝在快餐店里打工。

美国是全国上独一错误少年犯合用假释的国度。从19852002年,被关押的青少年添加44%。良多孩子仅犯有轻微违法行为,却不失掉状师的帮忙。许多检察官、公诉人和法官对产生在少年牢狱的虐待视而不见。 

六、关于加害他国人权

美国凭仗强盛的军事实力,在国际上推选霸权主义,粗暴加害他国主权,肆意蹂躏他国人权。

美国作为寰球最大的军火发卖国,加重全国各地不稳定。美国的军费全国第一。据报导,美国军费在2008年又添加了10%,到达6070亿美圆,占全国军费的42%。(注127)据美国国会的一份讲演显现,在2008年寰球兵器销量创下4年来新低的时候,美国对外军售总额却从上一年的254亿美圆猛增到378亿美圆,增进了约50%,占昔时寰球军售总量的68.4%。(注1282010年伊始,美国当局不顾中国当局和群众的强烈抗议,颁布揭晓对台湾发售总价值近64亿美圆的军售企图,重大损害中国国度保险好处,惹起中国群众的强烈气愤。

伊拉克和平和阿富汗和平不仅给美国群众添加了繁重的累赘,更给伊拉克和阿富汗两国群众的性命财富构成了伟大损失伊拉克和平已给伊拉克构成逾百万布衣殒命、逾百万人无家可归以及伟大财富损失。在阿富汗,美军草菅人命的事情至今仍然不竭产生。200985日,5名在货车上搬运黄瓜的阿富汗农夫在美军发动的空袭中回去。(注129)美国国防部200968日默示,美军在200955日在打击塔利班时,不遵照恰当的体式格局和法式,构成阿富汗布衣殒命。阿富汗民间目前已搜集到了147名遇害布衣的姓名,此中包孕主妇和儿童,而美国指挥官则称殒命人数不超过30人。(注130

虐囚是近年来美国在人权畛域的最大丑闻之一。2009年,结合国人权理事会反恐中庇护人权及基本自在问题出格讲演员在向人权理事会第10届会议提交的讲演中称,美国创造了一套片面的出格递解、历久和奥秘扣押以及违反结合国禁止严刑条约的做法。该讲演员在提交第64届联大的讲演中指出,美国及其私家承包人对在伊拉克和其余地方关押的男性穆斯林运用了自愿重叠赤身男囚、自愿与其余被扣押者举行异性性行为、自愿赤身赤身等审问手腕。(注131)美国中央谍报局自2002年就起头运用严刑手腕审问犯人。美国当局200932日证明,中央谍报局自2001年以来烧毁的92盘无关审问恐怖犯法嫌疑人的录像带中有12盘录像带记载了运用严刑的画面。(注132)依照近期发布的奥秘讲演,中央谍报局运用手枪和电棒审问犯人。(注133)依照美国发布的一系列司法部奥秘文件,执法者能够 呐喊将犯人以站立姿态铐住达180小时,十多个中央谍报局的犯人被褫夺睡眠起码48小时,有3人被褫夺睡眠超过96小时,此中一报答近8天的光阴,另一人被褫夺睡眠11天。(注134)据报导,中央谍报局审问职员已经对“9·11”事情的次要策划者哈立德·谢赫·穆罕默德运用了183次水刑,并对基地结构的另一名军事辅导人阿布·祖贝达运用83次水刑。(注135)关塔那摩牢狱宛如人间地狱。据被开释的关塔那摩牢狱犯人穆罕默德称,他在美国中央谍报局喀布尔奥秘牢狱和关塔那摩等牢狱受到了中世纪般的鞭挞。(注136)据美国《哈泼斯杂志》和全美广播公司2009年结合举行的考察,20066月被指他杀3名关塔那摩牢狱犯人极可能是在同一个早晨接收审问时窒息而死,当局却对外声称他们是上吊他杀。(注137)在关塔那摩牢狱被关押达8年之久的索马里人穆罕默德·萨莱班·巴雷说:那边是人间地狱。我的狱友们有的眼睛看不见了,有的胳膊、腿没了,有的精神失常。(注1382009年,被关押在关塔那摩牢狱的一名31岁的也门人历久绝食后身亡。自2002年起已有5人殒命,此中4人他杀。(注139)美国当局在阿富汗巴格拉姆空军基地关押了600多名犯人。结合国20092月出台的一份讲演点名批判巴格拉姆牢狱说,有些人在巴格拉姆被关押了5年之久。已获释的一些关押者声称他们蒙受了严刑鞭挞,以至性加害。一些人还称他们已经被关在有1520团体的笼子里,有两名关押者在监禁时期殒命,死因可疑。(注140)另据美国司法部的考察,有2000名塔利班投诚兵士被由美军把持的阿富汗武装塞进卡车中窒息殒命。(注141

美国在全国各地设立军事基地,加害本地群众人权的事情屡见不鲜。目前,美国在全国上有900处军事基地,基地中有超过19万名兵士和11.5万名相干事情职员。这些基地给本地构成了伟大的破碎摧毁和环境污染,炸弹爆炸产生的有毒物资给本地儿童构成伟大的伤害。据报导,在苏比克和克拉克美军基地,已有约3000件美军兵士强奸本地主妇的案件被提交,然而都被法院裁定不予受理。(注142

美国对古巴举行长达近50年的经济、贸易和金融关闭,给古巴带来了超过930亿美圆的间接经济损失。20091028日,第64届联大以187票支撑,3票支撑、2票弃权的压倒性多数第18次经由进程《必须终止美利坚合众国对古巴的经济、贸易和金融关闭》决策,要求美国当即停止对古巴的关闭。(注143

美国打着互联网自在的旗帜,推选霸权主义。美国垄断着全国互联网的计谋资源。互联网自诞生之日起就由美国紧紧掌控,目前寰球互联网根办事器有13台,此中独一的主根办事器在美国,其余12台辅根办事器中有9台在美国。十足根办事器均由美国当局受权的ICANN(国际互联网称号和编号分配公司)统一办理,卖力寰球互联网根域名办事器、域名体系和IP地点等的办理。全国各国和结合国等国际结构都曾要求打破美国对互联网根办事器的垄断,分享互联网的办理权,然而均遭美国谢绝。美国哄骗其对互联网资源的垄断位置,经由进程各种形式干预别海外交。美国建有专门的黑客戎行,并在寰球规模内招募黑客精英为其办事。2009年炎天,伊朗产生总统推举动乱,推举失利的伊朗改革派阵营及其支撑者哄骗推特等网络工具发布大批信息。美国国务院要求推特运营商推迟零碎进级企图,以帮忙支撑派制造言论声势。昔时5月,某网络公司也曾依照美国当局的授意,堵截了古巴等五国的MSN即时通信办事端口。

美国建立名为梯队的窃听零碎,对寰球举行窃听。欧洲议会的讲演书指出,梯队零碎作为一个由美国把持的谍报搜集分析网络,能够 呐喊在寰球规模内拦阻以公共德律风交流网络、卫星及微波通信所传递的德律风、传真、电子邮件和其余数字资讯,并监控此中的内容。欧洲议会曾点名批判美国哄骗梯队零碎处置犯法活动,如加害一般布衣的隐私权或国度性子的贸易特务活动,此中最著名的是沙特阿拉伯60亿美圆客机案。(注144)英国王妃戴安娜生前提倡寰球反地雷运动,与美国的政策相抵触,她的德律风因此被监听了。《华盛顿邮报》报导说,美国当局的这类特务举动不由让人想起了昔时越战时期美国当局对海内反战派人士举行监督窃听的行为。

美国漠视国际人权条约,消极看待国际人权使命。美国于32年前签订《经济、社会和文明权益国际条约》,于29年前签订《消除对主妇十足形式蔑视条约》,但迄今均未同意。美国还不同意《残疾人权益条约》。2007913日,第61届联大表决经由进程的《土著群众权益宣言》,是迄今结合国经由进程的庇护土著群众权益的最权威和片面的文件,美国依然谢绝否认该宣言。

以上事实阐明 顺叙,美国不仅海内人权记实非常糟,并且是全国许多人权磨练的次要根源。历久以来,美国将本身横跨于其余国度之上,充当全国人权差人,疏忽本身具有的重大的人权问题,年复一年地揭晓《国别人权讲演》对别国举行责备,将人权作为干预别海外交、美化别国抽象和谋取本身计谋好处的政治工具,充足表露了美国在人权问题上的两重尺度,理所当然地受到全国各国群众的坚定支撑和强烈谴责。出格是在全全国群众正蒙受由美国次贷危机引发的国际金融危机招致的重大人权磨练的时候,美国当局仍不无视本身具有的重大人权问题,而热衷于谴责别国,这是非常使人遗憾的。我们劝告美国当局吸取汗青经验,摆正本身的位置,出力改善本身人权情形,改在人权畛域的。

(注1Criminal Victimization2008U.S. Department of Justice, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov

  (注2Crime in the United States, 2008, http://www.fbi.gov

  (注3)《纽约时报》,20091230日。

  (注4)《侨报》,20091230日。  

  (注5 http://www.usatoday.com200961日。

  (注6http://www.reuters.com2009107日。

  (注7)《侨报》,2009925日。

  (注8http://review.usqiaobao.com200946日。

  (注9)《昔日美国报》,2009915日。

  (注10http://www.thefreelibrary.com

  (注11)《昔日美国报》,2009311日。

  (注12)《纽约时报》,200944日。

  (注13http://cbs5.com

  (注14)《纽约时报》,2009121日,2日,3日。

  (注15A Report of The Heritage Center for Data Analysis, School Safety in Washington, D.C.: New Data for the 2007-2008 School Year, http://www.herigage.org

  (注16)依照新泽西州教育局200910月发布的公校零碎暴力和故意伤害年度讲演,http://www.state.nj.us

  (注17)《纽约邮报》,2009922日。

  (注18http://gothamist.com20091117日。

  (注19http://www.mercurynews.com20091027日。

  (注20)《俄勒冈人报》,20091023日,http://blog.oregonlive.com

  (注21http://theduckshoot.com

  (注22)《华盛顿邮报》,2009719日。

  (注23)《芝加哥论坛报》,20099月, http://www.chicagobreakingnews.com

  (注24)《芝加哥论坛报》,2009919日。

  (注25)《华盛顿邮报》,20091118日。

  (注26http://www.huffingtonpost.com2009108日。

  (注27http://www.wsws.org

  (注28http://mensnewsdaily.com2010118日。

  (注29http://news.yahoo.com2010126日。

  (注30)《华盛顿邮报》,2009911日。

  (注31)《纽约时报》,2009624日。

  (注32http://www.news-medical.net2009122日。

  (注33http://thecrimereport.org2009122日。

  (注34www.hrw.org2009324日。

  (注35http://onlinejournal.com, 20091123日。

  (注36)《纽约时报》,2008710日。

  (注37)《纽约时报》,2009415日。

  (注38)《纽约时报》,2009420日。

  (注39http://blogs.rnw.nl

  (注40http://www.nytimes.com2009105日。

 (注41http://www.floridabankruptcyblog.com

  (注42)《芝加哥论坛报》,2009124日。

  (注43)《纽约时报》,2009117日。

  (注44)《纽约时报》,20091113日。

  (注45)《华盛顿邮报》,200997日。

  (注46http://247wallst.com2009319日。

  (注47)《华盛顿邮报》,2009911日。

  (注48)《纽约时报》,2009929日。

  (注49http://www.msnbc.msn.com

  (注50http://www.time.com

  (注51)《洛杉矶时报》,2009721日。

  (注52)《纽约时报》,20091117日;14.6% of Americans Could Not Afford Enough Food in 2008,《大西洋贸易频道》。

  (注53)美国性命科学网站,20091126日。

  (注54)美联社,20091127日。

  (注55http://www.associatedcontent.com

  (注56)《纽约时报》,200992日。

  (注57)《昔日美国报》2009720日。

  (注58http://www.census.gov

  (注59)路透社,2009108日。

  (注60http://www.ncpa.org

  (注61http://www.msnbc.msn.com

  (注62)法新社,20091111日。

  (注63http://www.oregonlive.com

  (注64http://www.msnbc.msn.com

  (注65)《昔日美国报》,200979日。

  (注66)《芝加哥论坛报》,20091028日。

  (注67http://www.truthalyzer.com

  (注68)《昔日美国报》,2009108日。

  (注69)《纽约时报》,20091210日。

  (注70)《休斯顿纪事报》,2009316日。

 (注71)《华尔街日报》,2009911日;《昔日美国报》,2009911日。

  (注72)《纽约时报》,2009929日。

  (注73Income, Povorty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008, www. Census.gov

  (注74)《华盛顿邮报》,2009610日。

  (注75)《华尔街日报》,200948日;美国联邦疾病把持和防止核心2009年揭晓的讲演。

  (注76)《昔日美国报》,2009116日。

  (注77)《华盛顿邮报, 20091210日。

  (注78)《侨报》,2009116日。

  (注79)《纽约时报》,2009121日。

  (注80)美联社,2009427日。

  (注81)美联社,20091118日。

  (注82)《纽约时报》,2009723日。

  (注83)美国人丁普查局,2009427日,http://www.census.gov

  (注84)《纽约时报》,201017日。

  (注85)《科学日报》,2009429日。

  (注86)《昔日美国报》,200955日。

  (注87www.ojp.usdoj.gov

  (注88)《侨报》,2009109日。

  (注89)《纽约时报》,20091117日。

  (注90www.hrw.org200932日。

  (注91http://www.washingtontimes.com, 2009910日。

  (注92)《全国日报》,2009326日。

  (注93)《星岛日报》,2009413日。

  (注94)《纽约时报》,2009112日。

  (注95) 《纽约时报》,2009112日。

  (注96www.hrw.org2009316日。

  (注97)《华尔街日报》,2009818日。

  (注98www.fbi.gov

  (注99victim characteristics, 20091021, www.fbi.gov

  (注100)《华盛顿邮报》,2009611日;《华尔街日报》,2009611日。

  (注101)《纽约时报》,200993日。

 (注102Members of the 111th United States Congress,维基百科。

  (注103)《华盛顿时报》,2009920日。

  (注104www.eeoc.gov, 2009113日。

  (注105)《华尔街日报》,2009911日;www.census.gov, 2009 910日。

  (注106)美联社,2009105日。

  (注107www.census.gov, 2009910日。

  (注108)《侨报》,2009512日。

  (注109Occurrence of rape, http://www.sa.rochester.edu

  (注110)《星岛日报》,2009314日。

  (注111)美国哥伦比亚广播公司晚间静态,2009317日。

  (注112)路透社,2009416日。

  (注113)《华盛顿邮报》,《昔日美国报》,20091117日。

  (注114www.feedingamerica.org200957日。

  (注115www.census.gov, 《华盛顿邮报》,2009911日。

  (注116CNN.com, MSNBUC.com, 2009310日。

  (注117http://www.census.gov,《华盛顿邮报》,2009921日。

  (注118)《洛杉矶时报》,《侨报》,2009814日。

  (注119)《公共卫生杂志》,20091030日。

  (注120)《昔日美国报》,《华尔街日报》,20091113日。

  (注121)《昔日美国报》,2009108日。

  (注122http://www.nyc.gov

  (注123)美联社,2009107日。

  (注124)《休斯顿纪事报》,20091022日。

  (注125)《侨报》,20091028日。

  (注126)西班牙《起义报》,20091014日。

  (注127)美联社,200969日。

  (注128)路透社,200996日。

  (注129http://www.rawa.org

  (注130)《费城问讯报》,200969日。

  (注131)《华盛顿邮报》,200947日。

  (注132)《华盛顿邮报》,200933日。

  (注133)《华盛顿邮报》,2009822日。

  (注134http://www.chron.com

  (注135)《纽约时报》,2009420日。

  (注136)法新社伦敦,200937日电。

  (注137)英国《卫报》网站,2010118日。

  (注138)法新社索马里哈尔格萨,20091221日电。

  (注139)《纽约时报》,200963日。

  (注140)美国国际静态社纽约2009225日电。

  (注141http://www.yourpolicicsusa.com, 2009716日。

  (注142http://www.lexisnexis.com, 2009517日。

  (注143Overwhelming International Rejection of US Blockade of Cuba at UN, www.cubanews.ain.cu

  (注144)维基百科。

Full Text of Human Rights Record of the United States in 2009

BEIJING, March 12 (Xinhua) -- China's Information Office of the State Council published a report titled "The Human Rights Record of the United States in 2009" here Friday. Following is the full text:

The State Department of the United States released its Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2009 on March 11, 2010, posing as "the world judge of human rights" again. As in previous years, the reports are full of accusations of the human rights situation in more than 190 countries and regions including China, but turn a blind eye to, or dodge and even cover up rampant human rights abuses on its own territory. The Human Rights Record of the United States in 2009 is prepared to help people around the world understand the real situation of human rights in the United States.

I. On Life, Property and Personal Security

Widespread violent crimes in the United States posed threats to the lives, properties and personal security of its people.

In 2008, U.S. residents experienced 4.9 million violent crimes, 16.3 million property crimes and 137,000 personal thefts, and the violent crime rate was 19.3 victimizations per 1,000 persons aged 12 or over, according to a report published by the U.S. Department of Justice in September 2009 (Criminal Victimization 2008, U.S. Department of Justice, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov). In 2008, over 14 million arrests occurred for all offenses (except traffic violations) in the country, and the arrest rate for violent crime was 198.2 per 100,000 inhabitants (Crime in the United States, 2008, http://www.fbi.gov). In 2009, a total of 35 domestic homicides occurred in Philadelphia, a 67 percent increase from 2008 (The New York Times, December 30, 2009). In New York City, 461 murders were reported in 2009, and the crime rate was 1,151 cases per 100,000 people. San Antonio in Texas was deemed as the most dangerous among 25 U.S. large cities with 2,538 crimes recorded per 100,000 people (The China Press, December 30, 2009). The murder rate rose 5.5 percent in towns with a population of 10,000 or fewer in 2008 (http://www.usatoday.com, June 1, 2009). Most of the United States' 15,000 annual murders occur in cities where they are concentrated in poorer neighborhoods (http://www.reuters.com, October 7, 2009).

The United States ranks first in the world in terms of the number of privately-owned guns. According to the data from the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), American gun owners, out of 309 million in total population, have more than 250 million guns, while a substantial proportion of U.S. gun owners had more than one weapon. Americans usually buy 7 billion rounds of ammunition a year, but in 2008 the figure jumped to about 9 billion (The China Press, September 25, 2009). In the United States, airline passengers are allowed to take unloaded weapons after declaration.

In the United States, about 30,000 people die from gun-related incidents each year (The China Press, April 6, 2009). According to a FBI report, there had been 14,180 murder victims in 2008 (USA Today, September 15, 2009). Firearms were used in 66.9 percent of murders, 43.5 percent of robberies and 21.4 percent of aggravated assaults (http://www.thefreelibrary.com). USA Today reported that a man named Michael McLendon killed 10 people in two rural towns of Alabama before turning a gun on himself on March 11, 2009. On March 29, a man named Robert Stewart shot and killed eight people and injured three others in a nursing home in North Carolina (USA Today, March 11, 2009). On April 3, an immigrant called Jiverly Wong shot 13 people dead and wounded four others in an immigration services center in downtown Binghamton, New York (The New York Times, April 4, 2009). In the year 2009, a string of attacks on police shocked the country. On March 21, a 26-year-old jobless man shot and killed four police officers in Oakland, California, before he was killed by police gunfire (http://cbs5.com). On April 4, a man called Richard Poplawski shot three police officers to death in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. On November 29, an ex-convict named Maurice Clemmons shot four police officers to death inside a coffee shop in Parkland, Washington (The New York Times, December 1, 2 and 3, 2009).

Campuses became an area worst hit by violent crimes as shootings spread there and kept escalating. The U.S. Heritage Foundation reported that 11.3 percent of high school students in Washington D.C. reported being "threatened or injured" with a weapon while on school property during the 2007-2008 school year. In the same period, police responded to more than 900 calls to 911 reporting violent incidents at the addresses of Washington D.C. public schools (A Report of The Heritage Center for Data Analysis, School Safety in Washington, D.C.: New Data for the 2007-2008 School Year, http://www.heritage.org). In New Jersey public schools, a total of 17,666 violent incidents were reported in 2007-2008 (Annual Report on Violence, Vandalism and Substance Abuse in New Jersey Public Schools by New Jersey Department of Education, October 2009, http://www.state.nj.us). In the City University of New York, a total of 107 major crimes occurred in five of its campuses during 2006 and 2007(The New York Post, September 22, 2009).

II. On Civil and Political Rights

In the United States, civil and political rights of citizens are severely restricted and violated by the government.

The country's police frequently impose violence on the people. Chicago Defender reported on July 8, 2009 that a total of 315 police officers in New York were subject to internal supervision due to unrestrained use of violence during law enforcement. The figure was only 210 in 2007. Over the past two years, the number of New York police officers under review for garnering too many complaints was up 50 percent (http://www.chicagodefender.com). According to a New York Police Department firearms discharge report released on Nov. 17, 2009, the city' s police fired 588 bullets in 2007, killing 10 people, and 354 bullets in 2008, killing 13 people (http://gothamist.com, November 17, 2009). On September 3, 2009, a student of the San Jose State University was hit repeatedly by four San Jose police officers with batons and a Taser gun for more than ten times (http://www.mercurynews.com, October 27, 2009). On September 22, 2009, a Chinese student in Eugene, Oregon was beaten by a local police officer for no reason (The Oregonian, October 23, 2009, http://blog.oregonlive.com). According to the Amnesty International, in the first ten months of 2009, police officers in the U.S. killed 45 people due to unrestrained use of Taser guns. The youngest of the victims was only 15. From 2001 to October, 2009, 389 people died of Taser guns used by police officers (http://theduckshoot.com).

Abuse of power is common among U.S. law enforcers. In July 2009, the Federal Bureau of Investigation put four police officers in the Washington area under investigation for taking money to protect a gambling ring frequented by some of the region's most powerful drug dealers over the past two years (The Washington Post, July, 19, 2009). In September 2009, an off-duty police officer in Chicago attacked a bus driver for "cutting him off in traffic" as he rode a bicycle (Chicago Tribune, September 2009, http://www.chicagobreakingnews.com). In the same month, four former police officers in Chicago were charged with extorting close to 500,000 U.S. dollars from a Hispanic driving an expensive car with out-of-state plates and suspected drug dealers in the name of law enforcement, and offering bribes to their superiors (Chicago Tribune, September 19, 2009). In November 2009, a former police chief of the Prince George's County's town of Morningside was charged with selling a stolen gun to a civilian (The Washington Post, November 18, 2009). In major U.S. cities, police stop, question and frisk more than a million people each year - a sharply higher number than just a few years ago (http://huffingtonpost.com, October 8, 2009).

Prisons in the United State are packed with inmates. According to a report released by the U.S. Justice Department on Dec. 8, 2009, more than 7.3 million people were under the authority of the U.S. corrections system at the end of 2008. The correctional system population increased by 0.5 percent in 2008 compared with the previous year (http://www.wsws.org). About 2.3 million were held in custody of prisons and jails, the equivalent of about one in every 198 persons in the country. From 2000 to 2008, the U.S. prison population increased an average of 1.8 percent annually (http://mensnewsdaily.com, January 18, 2010). The California government even suggested sending tens of thousands of illegal immigrants held in the state to Mexico, in order to ease its overcrowded prison system (http://news.yahoo.com, January 26, 2010).

The basic rights of prisoners in the United States are not well-protected. Raping cases of inmates by prison staff members are widely reported. According to the U.S. Justice Department, reports of sexual misconduct by prison staff members with inmates in the country's 93 federal prison sites doubled over the past eight years. Of the 90 staff members prosecuted for sexual abuse of inmates, nearly 40 percent were also convicted of other crimes (The Washington Post, September11, 2009). The New York Times reported on June 24, 2009 that according to a federal survey of more than 63,000 federal and state inmates, 4.5 percent reported being sexually abused at least once during the previous 12 months. It was estimated that there were at least 60,000 rapes of prisoners across the United States during the same period (The New York Times, June 24, 2009).

Chaotic management of prisons in the United State also led to wide spread of diseases among the inmates. According to a report from the U.S. Justice Department, a total of 20,231 male inmates and 1,913 female inmates had been confirmed as HIV carriers in the U.S. federal and state prisons at yearend 2008. The percentage of male and female inmates with HIV/AIDS amounted to 1.5 and 1.9 percent respectively (http://www.news-medical.net, December 2, 2009). From 2007 to 2008, the number of HIV/AIDS cases in prisons in California, Missouri and Florida increased by 246, 169, and 166 respectively. More than 130 federal and state inmates in the U.S. died of AIDS-related causes in 2007 (http://thecrimereport.org, December 2, 2009). A report by the Human Rights Watch released in March 2009 said although the New York State prison registered the highest number of prisoners living with HIV in the country, it did not provide the inmates with adequate access to treatment, and even locked the inmates up separately, refusing to provide them with treatment of any kind. (www.hrw.org, March 24, 2009).

While advocating "freedom of speech," "freedom of the press" and "Internet freedom," the U.S. government unscrupulously monitors and restricts the citizens' rights to freedom when it comes to its own interests and needs.

The U.S. citizens' freedom to access and distribute information is under strict supervision. According to media reports, the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) started installing specialized eavesdropping equipment around the country to wiretap calls, faxes, and emails and collect domestic communications as early as 2001. The wiretapping programs was originally targeted at Arab-Americans, but soon grew to include other Americans. The NSA installed over 25 eavesdropping facilities in San Jose, San Diego, Seattle, Los Angeles, and Chicago among other cities. The NSA also announced recently it was building a huge one million square feet data warehouse at a cost of 1.5 billion U.S. dollars at Camp Williams in Utah, as well as another massive data warehouse in San Antonio, as part of the NSA's new Cyber Command responsibilities. The report said a man named Nacchio was convicted on 19 counts of insider trading and sentenced to six years in prison after he refused to participate in NSA's surveillance program (http://www.onelinejournal.com, November 23, 2009).

After the September 11 attack, the U.S. government, in the name of anti-terrorism, authorized its intelligence authorities to hack into its citizens' mail communications, and to monitor and erase any information that might threaten the U.S. national interests on the Internet through technical means. The country's Patriot Act allowed law enforcement agencies to search telephone, email communications, medical, financial and other records, and broadened the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting foreign persons suspected of terrorism-related acts. The Act expanded the definition of terrorism, thus enlarging the number of activities to which law enforcement powers could be applied. On July 9, 2008, the U.S. Senate passed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Amendments Act of 2008, granting legal immunity to telecommunication companies that take part in wiretapping programs and authorizing the government to wiretap international communications between the United States and people overseas for anti-terrorism purposes without court approval (The New York Times, July 10, 2008). Statistic showed that from 2002 to 2006, the FBI collected thousands of phones records of U.S. citizens through mails, notes and phone calls. In September 2009, the country set up an Internet security supervision body, further worrying U.S. citizens that the U.S. government might use Internet security as an excuse to monitor and interfere with personal systems. A U.S. government official told the New York Times in an interview in April 2009 that NSA had intercepted private email messages and phone calls of Americans in recent months on a scale that went beyond the broad legal limits established by U.S. Congress the year before. In addition, the NSA was also eavesdropping on phones of foreign political figures, officials of international organizations and renowned journalists (The New York Times, April, 15, 2009). The U.S. military also participated in the eavesdropping programs. According to CNN reports, a Virginia-based U.S. military Internet risk evaluation organization was in charge of monitoring official and unofficial private blogs, official documents, personal contact information, photos of weapons, entrances of military camps, as well as other websites that "might threaten its national security."

The so-called "freedom of the press" of the United States was in fact completely subordinate to its national interests, and was manipulated by the U.S. government. According to media reports, the U.S. government and the Pentagon had recruited a number of former military officers to become TV and radio news commentators to give "positive comments" and analysis as "military experts" for the U.S. war in Iraq and Afghanistan, in order to guide public opinions, glorify the wars, and gain public support of its anti-terrorism ideology (The New York Times, April 20, 2009). At yearend 2009, the U.S. Congress passed a bill which imposed sanctions on several Arab satellite channels for broadcasting contents hostile to the U.S. and instigating violence (http://blogs.rnw.nl). In September 2009, protesters using the social-networking site Twitter and text messages to coordinate demonstrations clashed with the police several times in Pittsburgh, where the Group of 20 summit was held. Elliot Madison, 41, was later charged with hindering apprehension of the protesters through the Internet. The police also searched his home (http://www.nytimes.com, October 5, 2009). Vic Walczak, legal director of the American Civil Liberties Union of Pennsylvania, said the same conduct in other countries would be called human rights violations whereas in the United States it was called necessary crime control.

III. On Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Poverty, unemployment and the homeless are serious problems in the United States, where workers' economic, social and cultural rights cannot be guaranteed.

Unemployment rate in the U.S. in 2009 was the highest in 26 years. The number of bankrupt businesses and individuals kept rising due to the financial crisis. The Associated Press reported in April 2009 that nearly 1.2 million businesses and individuals filed for bankruptcy in the previous 12 months - about four in every 1,000 people, a rate twice as high as that in 2006 (http://www.floridabankruptcyblog.com). By December 4, 2009, a total of 130 U.S. banks had been forced to close in the year due to the financial crisis (Chicago Tribune, December 4, 2009). Statistics released by the U.S. Labor Department on Nov. 6, 2009 showed unemployment rate in October 2009 reached 10.2 percent, the highest since 1983 (The New York Times, November 7, 2009). Nearly 16 million people were jobless, with 5.6 million, or 35.6 percent of the unemployed, being out of work for more than half a year (The New York Times, November 13, 2009). In September, about 1.6 million young workers, or 25 percent of the total, were jobless, the highest since 1948 when records were kept (The Washington Post, September 7, 2009). In the week ending on March 7, 2009, the continuing jobless claims in the U.S. were 5.47 million, higher than the previous week's 5.29 million (http://247wallst.com, March 19, 2009).

The population in poverty was the largest in 11 years. The Washington Post reported on September 10, 2009, that altogether 39.8 million Americans were living in poverty by the end of 2008, an increase of 2.6 million from that in 2007. The poverty rate in 2008 was 13.2 percent, the highest since 1998. The number of people aged between 18 to 64 living in poverty in 2008 had risen to 22.1 million, 170,000 more than in 2007. Up to 8.1 million families were under poverty, accounting for 10.3 percent of the total families (The Washington Post, September 11, 2009). According to a report of the New York Times on Sept. 29, 2009, the poverty rate in New York City in 2008 was 18.2 percent and nearly 28 percent of the Bronx borough's residents were living in poverty (The New York Times, September 29, 2009). From August 2008 to August 2009, more than 90,000 poor households in California suffered power and gas cuts. A 93-year-old man was frozen to death at his home (http://www.msnbc.msn.com). Poverty led to a sharp rise in the number of suicides in the United States. It is reported that there are roughly 32,000 suicides in the U.S. every year, nearly double the cases of murder, which numbered 18,000 (http://www.time.com). The Los Angeles County coroner's office said the poor economy was taking a toll even on the dead as more bodies in the county went unclaimed by families who could not afford funeral expenses. A total of 712 bodies in Los Angles County were cremated with taxpayers' money in 2008, an increase of 36 percent over the previous year (The Los Angeles Times, July 21, 2009).

The population in hunger was the highest in 14 years. The U.S. Department of Agriculture reported on Nov. 16, 2009, that 49.1 million Americans living in 17 million households, or 14.6 percent of all American families, lacked consistent access to adequate food in 2008, up 31 percent from the 13 million households, or 11.1 percent of all American families, that lacked stable and adequate supply of food in 2007, which was the highest since the government began tracking "food insecurity" in 1995 (The New York Times, November 17, 2009; 14.6% of Americans Could Not Afford Enough Food in 2008, http://business.theatlantic.com). The number of people who lacked "food security," rose from 4.7 million in 2007 to 6.7 million in 2008 (http://www.livescience.com, November 26, 2009). About 15 percent of families were still working for adequate food and clothing (The Associated Press, November 27, 2009). Statistics showed 36.5 million Americans, or about one eighth of the U.S. total population, took part in the food stamp program in August 2009, up 7.1 million from that of 2008. However, only two thirds of those eligible for food stamps actually received them (http://www.associatedcontent.com).

Workers' rights were seriously violated. The New York Times reported on Sept. 2, 2009 that 68 percent of the 4,387 low-wage workers in a survey said they had experienced reduction of wages. And 76 percent of those who had worked overtime were not paid accordingly, and 57 percent of those interviewed had not received pay documents to make sure pay was legal and accurate. Only eight percent of those who suffered serious injuries on the job filed for compensation. Up to 26 percent of those surveyed were paid less than the national minimum wage. Among those who complained about wages or treatment, 43 percent had experienced retaliation or dismissal (The New York Times, September 2, 2009). According to a report by the USA Today on July 20, 2009, a total of 5,657 people died at workplaces across the U.S. in 2007, about 17 deaths each day. About 200,000 workers in New York State were injured or sickened at workplaces each year (USA Today, July 20, 2009).

The number of people without medical insurance has kept rising for eight consecutive years. Data released by the U.S. Census Bureau on Sept. 10, 2009, showed 46.3 million people were without medical insurance in 2008, accounting for 15.4 percent of the total population, comparing 45.7 million people who were without medical insurance in 2007, which was a rise for the eighth year in a row. About 20.3 percent of Americans between 18 to 64 years old were not covered by medical insurance in 2008, higher than the 19.6 percent in 2007 (http://www.census.gov). A study released by the Commonwealth Fund showed health insurance coverage of adults aged 18 to 64 declined in 31 U.S. states from 2007 to 2009 (Reuters, October 8, 2009). The number of states with extremely high number of adults who were not covered by medical insurance increased from two in 1999 to nine in 2009. More than one in every four people in Texas were uninsured, the highest percentage among all states (http://www.ncpa.org). Houston had 40.1 percent of its residents uninsured (http://www.msnbc.msn.com). In 2008, altogether 2,266 U.S. veterans under the age of 65 died for lack of health insurance coverage or medical care, 14 times higher than the U.S. military death toll in Afghanistan that year (AFP, November 11, 2009). A report by the Consumer International showed 34 percent of U.S. families with annual income below 50,000 U.S. dollars and 21 percent of homes with annual income exceeding 100,000 U.S. dollars lost medical insurance or suffered reduction in medical insurance in 2009. In addition, two thirds of households with annual income below 50,000 U.S. dollars and one third of homes earning more than 100,000 U.S. dollars a year cut their medical expenses last year. About 28 percent Americans chose not to see a doctor when they fell ill; a quarter of them could not afford medical bills; 22 percent postponed medical treatment; a fifth of them did not buy medicine prescribed by doctors or undergo medical checkups; 15 percent took expired drugs or did not follow medical instructions to take medicine on time in order to save money (http://www.oregonlive.com). According to a report of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on December 8, 2009, average life expectancy of Americans was 78.1 years in 2007, ranking the fourth from bottom among all member states of OECD. The average life expectancy of OECD member states was 79.1 that year (http://www.msnbc.msn.com).

The number of homeless has been on the rise. Statistics show that by September 2008, an upward of 1.6 million homeless people in the U.S. had been receiving shelter, and the number of those in families rose from 473,000 in 2007 to 517,000 in 2008 (USA Today, July 9, 2009). Since 2009, homeless enrollments in the six counties of Chicago area had climbed, with McHenry County seeing the biggest hike - an increase of 125 percent over the previous year (Chicago Tribune, November 28, 2009). These families could only live in shabby places such as wagons. In March 2009, a sprawling tent city was seen in Sacramento of California where hundreds of homeless gathered. Police in Santa Monica of southern California even regularly used force to drive the homeless out of the city (www.truthalyzer.com). In October, several thousand homeless in Detroit got into a fight, worrying they might not receive the government's housing subsidies (USA Today, October 8, 2009). In December, there were 6,975 homeless single adults in shelters in New York City, not including military veterans, chronically homeless people, and the 30,698 people living in short-term housing for homeless families (The New York Times, December 10, 2009). The Houston Chronicle reported on March 16, 2009 that large numbers of houses in Galveston were destroyed by Hurricane Ike in September 2008, leaving thousands homeless. About 1,700 households did not receive any aid and most of them do not have fixed residences (Houston Chronicle, March 16, 2009).

IV. On Racial Discrimination

Racial discrimination is still a chronic problem of the United States.

Black people and other minorities are the most impoverished groups in the United States. According to a report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Census, the real median income for American households in 2008 was 50,303 U.S. dollars. That of the non-Hispanic white households was 55,530 U.S. dollars, Hispanic households 37,913 U.S. dollars, black households only 34,218 U.S. dollars. The median incomes of Hispanic and black households were roughly 68 percent and 61.6 percent of that of the non-Hispanic white households. Median income of minority groups was about 60 to 80 percent of that of majority groups under the same conditions of education and skill background (The Wall Street Journal, September 11, 2009; USA Today, September 11, 2009). According to the U.S. Bureau of Census, the poverty proportion of the non-Hispanic white was 8.6 percent in 2008, those of African-Americans and Hispanic were 24.7 percent and 23.2 percent respectively, almost three times of that of the white (The New York Times, September 29, 2009). About one quarter of American Indians lived below the poverty line. In 2008, 30.7 percent of Hispanic, 19.1 percent of African-Americans and 14.5 percent of non-Hispanic white lived without health insurance (Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008, www.census.gov). According to a report issued by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, a record 10,552 fair housing discrimination complaints were filed in fiscal 2008, 35 percent of which were alleged race discrimination (The Washington Post, June 10, 2009). The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that while African-Americans make up 12 percent of the US population, they represent nearly half of new HIV infections and AIDS deaths every year (The Wall Street Journal, April 8, 2009; revised statistics released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).

Employment and occupational discrimination against minority groups is very serious. Minority groups bear the brunt of the U.S. unemployment. According to news reports, the U.S. unemployment rate in October 2009 was 10.2 percent. The jobless rate of the U.S. African-Americans jumped to 15.7 percent, that of the Hispanic rose to 13.1 percent and that of the white was 9.5 percent (USA Today, November 6, 2009). Unemployment rate of the black aged between 16 and 24 saw a record high of 34.5 percent, more than three times the average rate. Unemployment rates for the black in cities such as Detroit and Milwaukee had reached 20 percent (The Washington Post, December 10, 2009). In some American Indians communities, unemployment rate was as high as 80 percent (The China Press, November 6, 2009). According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the unemployment rate for black male college graduates aged 25 and older in 2009 has been twice that of white male college graduates, 8.4 percent compared with 4.4 percent (The New York Times, December 1, 2009). In 2008, a record number of workers filed federal job discrimination complaints, with allegations of race discrimination making up the greatest portion at more than one-third of the 95,000 total claims (AP, April 27, 2009). According to an investigation by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, a Houston-based oil and gas drilling company faced five complaints of racial harassment and discrimination (AP, November 18, 2009). According to a news report, by the end of May 2009, the black and Hispanic groups each accounted for roughly 27 percent of New York City's population, but only 3 percent of the 11,529 firefighters were black, and about 6 percent were Hispanic since the city's fire department unfairly excluded hundreds of qualified people of color from the opportunity to serve (The New York Times, July 23, 2009).

The U.S. minority groups face discriminations in education. According to a report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Census, 33 percent of the non-Hispanic white has college degrees, proportion of the black was only 20 percent and Hispanic was 13 percent (US Bureau of Census, April 27, 2009, www.census.gov). According to a report, from 2003 to 2008, 61 percent of black applicants and 46 percent of Mexican-American applicants were denied acceptance at all of the law schools to which they applied, compared with 34 percent of white applicants (The New York Times, January 7, 2010). African-American children accounted for only 17 percent of the U.S. public school students, but accounted for 32 percent of the total number which were expelled from the schools. According to a research by the University of North Carolina and Michigan State University, most of the black juvenile believed that they were victims of racial discrimination (Science Daily, April 29, 2009). According to another study conducted among 5,000 children in Birmingham, Ala., Houston and Los Angeles, prejudice was reported by 20 percent of blacks and 15 percent of Hispanics. The study showed that racial discrimination was an important cause to mental health problems for children of varied races. Hispanic children who reported racism were more than three times as likely as other children to have symptoms of depression, blacks were more than twice as likely (USA Today, May 5, 2009).

Racial discrimination in law enforcement and judicial system is very distinct. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, by the end of 2008, 3,161 men and 149 women per 100,000 persons in the U.S. black population were under imprisonment (www.ojp.usdoj.gov). The number of life imprisonment without parole given to African-American young people was ten times of that given to white young people in 25 states. The figure in California was 18 times. In major U.S. cities, there are more than one million people who were stopped and questioned by police in streets, nearly 90 percent of them were minority males. Among those questioned, 50 percent were African-Americans and 30 percent were Hispanics. Only 10 percent were white people (The China Press, October 9, 2009). A report released by New York City Police Department, of the people involved in police shootings whose ethnicity could be determined in 2008, 75 percent were black, 22 percent were Hispanic; and 3 percent were white (The New York Times, November 17, 2009). According to a report by Human Rights Watch, from 1980 to 2007, the ratio of the African-Americans being arrested for dealing drugs across the U.S. was 2.8 to 5.5 times of that of the white (www.hrw.org, March 2, 2009).

Since the Sept. 11 event, discrimination against Muslims is increasing. Nearly 58 percent of Americans think Muslims are subject to "a lot" of discrimination, according to two combined surveys released by the Pew Research Center. About 73 percent of young people aged 18 to 29 are more likely to say Muslims are the most discriminated against (http://www.washingtontimes.com, September 10, 2009).

Immigrants live in misery. According to a report by the U.S. branch of Amnesty International, more than 300,000 illegal immigrants were detained by U.S. immigration authorities each year, and the illegal immigrants under custody exceeded 30,000 for each single day (World Journal, March 26, 2009). At the same time, hundreds of legal immigrants were put under arrest, denied entry or even sent back under escort every year (Sing Tao Daily, April 13, 2009). A report released by the Constitution Project and Human Rights Watch revealed that from 1999 to 2008, about 1.4 million detained immigrants were transferred. Tens of thousands of longtime residents of cities like Los Angeles and Philadelphia were sent, by force, to remote immigrant jails in Texas or Louisiana (The New York Times, November 2, 2009). The New York City Bar Association received a startling petition in October 2008 which was signed by 100 men, all locked up without criminal charges in the Varick Street Detention Facility in the middle of Manhattan. The letter described their cramped, filthy quarters where dire medical needs were ignored and hungry prisoners were put to work for 1 dollar a day (The New York Times, November 2, 2009). Some detained women who were still in lactation period were denied breast pumps in the facilities, resulting in fever, pain, mastitis, and the inability to continue breastfeeding upon release (www.hrw.org, March 16, 2009). A total of 104 people have died while in custody of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency since October, 2003 (The Wall Street Journal, August 18, 2009).

Ethnic hatred crimes are frequent. According to statistics released by the U.S. Federal Investigation Bureau on November 23, 2009, a total of 7,783 hate crimes occurred in 2008 in the United States, 51.3 percent of which were originated by racial discrimination and 19.5 percent were for religious bias and 11.5 percent were for national origins (www.fbi.gov). Among those hate crimes, more than 70 percent were against black people. In 2008, anti-black offenses accounted for 26 persons per 1,000 people, and anti-white crimes accounted for 18 persons per 1,000 people (victim characteristics, October 21, 2009, www.fbi.gov). On June 10, 2009, a white supremacist gunned down a black guard of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum with another two wounded (The Washington Post, June 11, 2009, The Wall Street Journal, June 11, 2009). According to a report issued by the Southern Poverty Law Center, an environment of racial intolerance and ethnic hatred, fostered by anti-immigrant groups and some public officials, has helped fuel dozens of attacks on Latinos in Suffolk County of New York State during the past decade (The New York Times, September 3, 2009).

V. On the Rights of Women and Children

The living conditions of women and children in the United States are deteriorating and their rights are not properly guaranteed.

Women do not enjoy equal social and political status as men. Women account for 51 percent of the U.S. population, but only 92 women, or 17 percent of the seats, serve in the current 111th U.S. Congress. Seventeen women serve in the Senate and 75 women serve in the House (Members of the 111th United States Congress, http://en.wikipedia.org). A study shows minorities and women are unlikely to hold top positions at big U.S. charities and nonprofits. The study reveals that women make up 18.8 percent of nonprofit CEOs compared to just 3 percent at Fortune 500 companies. Among the 400 biggest charities in the U.S., no cultural organization, hospital, public affairs group, Jewish federation or other religious organization is headed by a woman (The Washington Times, September 20, 2009).

Women have difficulties in finding a job and suffer from low income and poor financial situations. According to statistics from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), workplace discrimination charge filings with the federal agency nationwide rose to 95,402 during Fiscal Year 2008, a 15 percent increase from the previous fiscal year. Charge of workplace discrimination because of a job applicant's sex maintained a high proportion (www.eeoc.gov, November 3, 2009). According to statistics released by the U.S. Census Bureau in September 2009, the median incomes of full-time female workers in 2008 were 35,745 U.S. dollars, 77 percent of those of corresponding men whose median earnings were 46,367 U.S. dollars, which is lower than the 78 percent in 2007 (The Wall Street Journal, September 11, 2009; www.census.gov, September 10, 2009). According to the Associated Press, a female pharmacist who had been working for Walmart for ten years was fired in 2004 for demanding the same income as her male counterparts (The Associated Press, October 5, 2009). By the end of 2008, 4.2 million, or 28.7 percent of families with a female householder where no husband is present were poor (www.census.gov, September 10, 2009). About 64 million, or 70 percent of working-age American women have no health insurance coverage, or have inadequate coverage, high medical bills or debt problems, or problems in accessing care because of cost (The China Press, May 12, 2009).

Women are frequent victims of violence and sexual assault. It is reported that the United States has the highest rape rate among countries which report such statistics. It is 13 times higher than that of England and 20 times higher than that of Japan (Occurrence of rape, http://www.sa.rochester.edu). In San Diego, a string of similar attacks happened to five women who have been sexually assaulted by a home invader in March 2009 (Sing Tao Daily, March 14, 2009). According to a report released by the Pentagon, more than 2,900 sexual assaults in the military were reported in 2008, up nearly 9 percent from the year before. And of those, only 292 cases resulted in a military trial. The report said the actual numbers of such cases could be five to ten times of the reported figure (The evening news of the Columbia Broadcasting System, March 17, 2009). Reuters reported that based on in-depth interviews on 40 servicewomen, 10 said they had been raped, five said they were sexually assaulted including attempted rape, and 13 reported sexual harassment (Reuters, April 16, 2009).

American children suffer from hunger and cold. A report from the U.S. Department of Agriculture showed that 16.7 million children, or one fourth of the U.S. total, had not enough food in 2008 (The Washington Post, USA Today, November 17, 2009). The food relief institution Feeding America said in a report that more than 3.5 million children under the age of five face hunger or malnutrition. This figure accounts for 17 percent of American children aged five and under. In 11 states, more than 20 percent of young children were at risk for hunger. Louisiana, with 24.2 percent, had the highest rate of child food insecurity (www.feedingamerica.org, May 7, 2009). Children at or below 18 account for more than one third of the U.S. people in poverty. Figures from the U.S. Census Bureau showed that the number of children younger than 18 who live in poverty increased from 13.3 million in 2007 to 14.1 million in 2008 (http://www.census.gov, The Washington Post, September 11, 2009). According to statistics from the U.S-based National Center on Family Homelessness, from 2005 to 2006, more than 1.5 million children, or one in every 50 children, were homeless in the U.S. every year. Among the homeless children, 42 percent were younger than 6 and the majority were African-Americans and Indians (CNN.com, MSNBUC.com, March 10, 2009). In 2008, nearly one tenth of the children in the United States were not covered by health insurance. It was reported that about 7.3 million children, or 9.9 percent of the American total, were without health insurance in 2008. In Nevada, 20.2 percent of the children were uncovered by insurance (http://www.census.gov, the Washington Post, September 21). On August 13, 2009, a state board voted that California will begin terminating health insurance for more than 60,000 children on October 1. The program could ultimately drop nearly 670,000 children by the end of June 2010 (The Los Angeles Times, The China Press, August 14, 2009). A research led by the Johns Hopkins Children's Center showed that lack of health insurance might have led or contributed to nearly 17,000 deaths among hospitalized children in the U.S. in the span of less than two decades (Journal of Public Health, October 30, 2009). The A/H1N1 flu has infected about 8 million children under 18 from April to October 2009, killing 540 of them, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States (USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, November 13, 2009).

Children are exposed to violence and living in fear. It is reported that 1,494 children younger than 18 nationwide were murdered in 2008 (USA Today, October 8, 2009). A report released by the Health Department of the New York City on June 16, 2009 showed that between 2001 and 2007, the national average rate of child deaths was 20 per 100,000 children aged 1 to 12 years. Homicide rates were 1.3 deaths per 100,000 among the group (http://www.nyc.gov). A survey conducted by the U.S. Justice Department on 4,549 kids and adolescents aged 17 and younger between January and May of 2008 showed, more than 60 percent of children surveyed were exposed to violence within the past year, either directly or indirectly. Nearly half of all children surveyed were assaulted at least once in the past year, about 6 percent were victimized sexually, and 13 percent reported having been physically bullied in the past year (The Associated Press, October 7, 2009). There have been at least 1,227 children died from abuse or neglect in Texas since 2002 (The Houston Chronicle, October 22, 2009). According to research of U.S.-based institution and public health media reports, in the U.S., one third of children who run away or were expelled from home performed sexual acts in exchange for food, drugs and a place to stay every year. The justice system no longer considers them as young victims, but as juvenile offenders (The China Press, October 28, 2009).

Child farmworkers are prevalent. An organization devoted to protecting children's rights disclosed that as many as 400,000 children are estimated to work on U.S. farms. Davis Strauss, executive director of the Association of Farmworker Opportunity Programs, noted that for decades, children, some as young as eight years old, have labored in the fields using sharp tools and toiling amongst dangerous pesticides. The association's president Ernie Flores said children account for about 20 percent of all farm fatalities in the United States (Spain's Uprising newspaper, October 14, 2009). A labor standards act permits a child beyond 13 to work in heat for long time in a farm, but does not permit that child to work in an air-conditioned office and even forbids them working in a fast food restaurant.

The U.S. is the only country in the world that does not apply parole system to minors. Detentions of juveniles have increased 44 percent from 1985 to 2002. Many children only committed only minor crimes but could not get assistance from lawyers. Many procurators and judges turned a blind eye on abuse in juvenile prisons.

VI. On U.S. Violations of Human Rights against Other Nations

The United States with its strong military power has pursued hegemony in the world, trampling upon the sovereignty of other countries and trespassing their human rights.

As the world's biggest arms seller, its deals have greatly fueled instability across the world. The United States also expanded its military spending, already the largest in the world, by 10 percent in 2008 to 607 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for 42 percent of the world total (The AP, June 9, 2009).

According to a report by the U.S. Congress, the U.S. foreign arms sales in 2008 soared to 37.8 billion U.S. dollars from 25.4 billion a year earlier, up by nearly 50 percent, accounting for 68.4 percent of the global arms sales that were at its four-year low (Reuters, September 6, 2009). At the beginning of 2010, the U.S. government announced a 6.4-billion-U.S. dollar arms sales package to Taiwan despite strong protest from the Chinese government and people, which seriously damaged China's national security interests and aroused strong indignation among the Chinese people.

The wars of Iraq and Afghanistan have placed heavy burden on American people and brought tremendous casualties and property losses to the people of Iraq and Afghanistan. The war in Iraq has led to the death of more than 1million Iraqi civilians, rendered an equal number of people homeless and incurred huge economic losses. In Afghanistan, incidents of the U.S. army killing innocent people still keep occurring. Five Afghan farmers were killed in a U.S. air strike when they were loading cucumbers into a van on August 5, 2009 (http://www.rawa.org). On June 8, the U.S. Department of Defense admitted that the U.S. raid on Taliban on May 5 caused death of Afghan civilians as the military failed to abide by due procedures. The Afghan authorities have identified 147 civilian victims, including women and children, while a U.S. officer put the death toll under 30 (The Philadelphia Inquirer, June 9, 2009).

Prisoner abuse is one of the biggest human rights scandals of the United States. A report presented to the 10th meeting of Human Rights Council of the United Nations in 2009 by its Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism showed that the United States has pursued a comprehensive set of practices including special deportation, long-term and secret detentions and acts violating the United Nations Convention against Torture. The rapporteur also said, in a report submitted to the 64th General Assembly of the United Nations, that the United States and its private contractors tortured male Muslims detained in Iraq and other places by stacking the naked prisoners in pyramid formation, coercing the homosexual sexual behaviors and stripping them in stark nakedness (The Washington Post, April 7, 2009). The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has begun interrogation by torture since 2002. The U.S. government lawyers disclosed that since 2001, CIA has destroyed 92 videotapes relating to the interrogation to suspected terrorists, 12 of them including the use of torture (The Washington Post, March 3, 2009). The CIA interrogators used a handgun and an electric drill to frighten a captured al-Qaeda commander into giving up information (The Washington Post, August 22, 2009). The U.S. Justice Department memos revealed the CIA kept prisoners shackled in a standing position for as long as 180 hours, more than a dozen of them deprived of sleep for at least 48 hours, three for more than 96 hours, and one for the nearly eight-day maximum. Another seemed to endorse sleep deprivation for 11 days, stated on one memo (http://www.chron.com). The CIA interrogators used waterboarding 183 times against the accused 9/11 major plotter Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and 83 times against suspected Al-Qaeda leader Abu Zubaydah (The New York Times, April 20, 2009). A freed Guantanamo prisoner said he experienced the "medieval" torture at Guantanamo Bay and in a secret CIA prison in Kabul (AFP, London, March 7, 2009). In June 2006, three Guantanamo Bay inmates could have been suffocated to death during interrogation on the same evening and their deaths passed off as suicides by hanging, revealed by a six-month joint investigation for Harpers Magazine and NBC News in 2009 (www.guardian.co.uk, January 18, 2010). A Somali named Mohamed Saleban Bare, jailed at Guantanamo Bay for eight years, told AFP the prison was "hell on earth" and some of his colleagues lost sight and limbs and others ended up mentally disturbed (AFP, Hargisa, Somali, December 21, 2009). A 31-year-old Yemeni detainee at Guantanamo Bay who had been on a long hunger strike apparently committed suicide in 2009 after four prior suicide deaths beginning at 2002 (The New York Times, June 3, 2009). The U.S. government held more than 600 prisoners at Bagram Air Base, Afghanistan. A United Nations report singled out the Bagram detention facility for criticism, saying some ex-detainees allege being subjected to severe torture, even sexual abuse, and some prisoners put under detention for as long as five years. It also reported that some were held in cages containing 15 to 20 men and that two detainees died in questionable circumstances while in custody (IPS, New York, February 25, 2009). An investigation by U.S. Justice Department showed 2,000 Taliban surrendered combatants were suffocated to death by the U.S. army-controlled Afghan armed forces (http://www.yourpolicicsusa.com, July 16, 2009).

The United States has been building its military bases around the world, and cases of violation of local people's human rights are often seen. The United States is now maintaining 900 bases worldwide, with more than 190,000 military personnel and 115,000 relevant staff stationed. These bases are bringing serious damage and environmental contamination to the localities. Toxic substances caused by bomb explosions are taking their tolls on the local children. It has been reported that toward the end of the U.S. military bases' presence in Subic and Clark, as many as 3,000 cases of raping the local women had been filed against the U.S. servicemen, but all were dismissed (http://www.lexisnexis.com, May 17, 2009).

The United States has been maintaining its economic, commercial and financial embargo against Cuba for almost 50 years. The blockade has caused an accumulated direct economic loss of more than 93 billion U.S. dollars to Cuba. On October 28, 2009, the 64th session of the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution on the "Necessity of ending the economic, commercial and financial embargo imposed by the United States of America against Cuba," with a recorded vote of 187 in favor to three against, and two abstentions. This marked the 18th consecutive year the assembly had overwhelmingly called on the United States to lift the blockade without delay (Overwhelming International Rejection of US Blockade of Cuba at UN, www.cubanews.ain.cu).

The United States is pushing its hegemony under the pretence of "Internet freedom." The United States monopolizes the strategic resources of the global Internet, and has been retaining a tight grip over the Internet ever since its first appearance. There are currently 13 root servers of Internet worldwide, and the United States is the place where the only main root server and nine out of the rest 12 root servers are located. All the root servers are managed by the ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), which is, by the authority of the U.S. government, responsible for the management of the global root server system, the domain name system and the Internet Protocol address. The United States has declined all the requests from other countries as well as international organizations including the United Nations to break the U.S. monopoly over the root servers and to decentralize its management power over the Internet. The United States has been intervening in other countries' domestic affairs in various ways taking advantage of its control over Internet resources. The United States has a special troop of hackers, which is made up of hacker proficients recruited from all over the world. When post-election unrest broke out in Iran in the summer of 2009, the defeated reformist camp and its advocators used Internet tools such as Twitter to spread their messages. The U.S. State Department asked the operator of Twitter to delay its scheduled maintenance to assist with the opposition in creating a favorable momentum of public opinion. In May 2009, one web company, prompted by the U.S. authorities, blocked its Messenger instant messaging service in five countries including Cuba.

The United States is using a global interception system named "ECHELON" to eavesdrop on communications worldwide. A report of the European Parliament pointed out that the "ECHELON" system is a network controlled by the United States for intelligence gathering and analyzing. The system is able to intercept and monitor the content of telephone calls, fax, e-mail and other digital information transmitted via public telephone networks, satellites and microwave links. The European Parliament has criticized the United States for using its “ECHELON” system to commit crimes such as civilian's privacy infringement or state-conducted industrial espionage, among which was the most striking case of Saudi Arabia's 6-billion-dollar aircraft contract (see Wikipedia). Telephone calls of British Princess Diana had been intercepted and eavesdropped because her global campaign against land-mines was in conflict with the U.S. policies. The Washington Post once reported that such spying activities conducted by the U.S. authorities were reminiscent of the Vietnam War when the United States imposed wiretapping and surveillance upon domestic anti-war activists.

The United States ignores international human rights conventions, and takes a passive attitude toward international human rights obligations. It signed the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 32 years ago and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women 29 years ago, but has ratified neither of them yet. It has not ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities either. On Sept. 13, 2007, the 61st UN General Assembly voted to adopt the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which has been the UN's most authoritative and comprehensive document to protect the rights of indigenous peoples. The United States also refused to recognize the declaration.

The above-mentioned facts show that the United States not only has a bad domestic human rights record, but also is a major source of many human rights disasters around the world. For a long time, it has placed itself above other countries, considered itself "world human rights police" and ignored its own serious human rights problems. It releases Country Reports on Human Rights Practices year after year to accuse other countries and takes human rights as a political instrument to interfere in other countries' internal affairs, defame other nations' image and seek its own strategic interests. This fully exposes its double standards on the human rights issue, and has inevitably drawn resolute opposition and strong denouncement from world people. At a time when the world is suffering a serious human rights disaster caused by the U.S. subprime crisis-induced global financial crisis, the U.S. government still ignores its own serious human rights problems but revels in accusing other countries. It is really a pity.

We hereby advise the U.S. government to draw lessons from the history, put itself in a correct position, strive to improve its own human rights conditions and rectify its acts in the human rights field.

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